Syllabi & Course Materials

A Student Journal from "Language and Society" Spring 2000

What goes on in "Language and Society"? In Spring 2000 we had an unusual group of students of very varied backgrounds. While a few were more or less conventional majors in such fields as Spanish and Communication, several had a command of a second or even a third language. There were three native speakers of Spanish, one student from an Italian-speaking family, another whose first language was Kannada (a language of South India), another who used Jamaican Creole at home. So we were able to draw on a good deal of practical experience in the classroom. Among the students was also a faculty member in International Languages and Cultures, Lil Castro, who was a constant source of information and ideas.

We were also fortunate to have in the class the Director of Languages for the Glastonbury Public Schools and one of the best-known advocates for foreign language teaching in the country, Christine Brown, who is working for a Ph.D. at the University of Connecticut. As might be expected from so distinguished a participant, her journal was truly exceptional. It gives a better sense of the class and its activities than anything the instructor himself could create, and so I include it here for those who want a taste of what goes on in "Language and Society."


Jan. 20, 2000

I thoroughly enjoyed the first class tonight. I found it stimulating and a little frightening to be back in a classroom with undergraduate students, most of whom are half my age. I enjoyed listening to the backgrounds of all of the students and imagining the kind of language training that they had had in elementary school and high school or in their native countries. I found the class composition to be fascinating with several native speakers and several students who were majoring in foreign languages and possibly heading to teaching. I enjoyed the beginnings of the overview of the course outline and the organizing questions that Humphrey put forth about Geo- linguistics. How does one manage in a multilingual world with thousands of languages spoken? Certainly this question has eluded many great leaders and contributed to the downfall of nation states. How do we deal with language difference? Also a question that will be interesting to ponder given the controversy about bilingual education presently underway in United States. What mechanisms exist for handling a multilingual world? It will be interesting to ponder the choices that lie ahead for the United States. What issues lie behind these issues? How do people manage and adapt in a multilingual world?

I also found the discussion about George Soros and his family to be interesting. Since I wasn't aware of the history of the founding of Esperanto I realized what an important part an invented and/or secret language might have played in the transmission of information about what was happening during the Holocaust.

Favorite quotes from this class, "A language is a dialect with an army" "Language teachers spend a lot of time teaching about the system of language and not much time on the people."

Jan. 27, 2000

I enjoyed the readings from the beginning chapters of Edwards and Romaine. I also reflected upon Steven Pinker's book, "The Language Instinct" that I read about five years ago. I recall how much more I understood Chomsky after reading Pinker. Certainly seeing Dell Hymes listed on the bibliography made me reflect on one of my favorite classes, one in socio-linguistics I had in the late 1970s. In that class the work that we read by Dell Hymes was a welcome relief from the course in transformational grammar! Hymes was an inspiration to me as a teacher and gave me insight into cultural and linguistic anthropology. That same class helped me develop an appreciation for language in general and not just for the language that I had been studying. Unfortunately even today most foreign language teachers don't have any training in linguistics, language policy or language planning. Unless one is headed to the field of teaching English is a foreign language these kinds of courses do not form of basis for teacher preparation. This course on the other hand would be a perfect foundation for all prospective language teachers and school administrators working in schools in the U.S.

Tonight I found an article in the New York Times that I will use as my first show and tell. This article, really more of an editorial, talks about the emergence of the new European identity. It speaks specifically to the unification of the European nation around a common set of emerging laws. It quotes a German expert on international affairs as saying, "there has been a qualitative jump in the sense of European identity. What you're seeing for the first time is shared beliefs about rights and responsibilities. Europeans are no longer ready to sit passively as America protects them or as the union grows."

In the class discussion tonight I found it fascinating to ponder issues of language choice and politics. I was not aware that Romanian and Moldovian was the same language, and that Macedonian is probably the same as Bulgarian. However, these languages adopted different alphabets in order to distinguish themselves one from another for political and ethnic reasons.

The exact definition of the term pragmatics has eluded me. This is a term that has been used since my earlier experiences in linguistics. I need to further expand the definition for myself.

Favorite quotes from this class, "Language is one of the most basic ways in which we share an identity as human beings"

February 3, 2000

Tonight's topic: identity, ethnicity, and geography could be the subject of an entire course.

My favorite quote from tonight was, " Why do the Swiss see themselves is one nation?"

This discussion about Switzerland reminds me of conversations I had with teachers from the former Yugoslavia when we were in Paris 10 years ago studying innovative ways to present French as a foreign language throughout the world. These teachers shared their models for elementary foreign language instruction for the six national languages of the former Yugoslavia. They were enthused about having their students add an additional language to the native language repertoires they were developing. I wondered at the time how could individuals who represented so many ethnic and linguistic differences see themselves as part of one nation. For many years after my relationship with them I would use them as examples when talking about multilingualism and multiculturalism in peaceful coexistence in the school setting. Certainly the events of the last four years have pointed up to me how deeply rooted language and culture are regardless of what appears to be a peaceful coexistence on the surface of some nation states. Yugoslavia had developed some of the most productive approaches to foreign language instruction, yet a careful national planning for linguistic sharing and cultural appreciation did not hold up in the face of deeply rooted historical divisions. The Swiss of course have a very different history, but yet there are ethnic and linguistic hierarchies that bubble underneath the surface.

This week I read a book review about a book entitled, "I see a voice" by Jonathan Ree. This is a book that I would like to find and read for Ree talks about how people who were born deaf in the western world were treated like animals. Ree gives a 400-year overview of deaf education. According to the review, the heroes of the story are the Abee do LEpee and de Saussure. My favorite quote from the review is "philosophy has fallen greatly from the all embracing theories of Plato, Kant and Hegel to 20th-century linguistic tinkering. Ree sees a middle role for philosophy: a modest but persistent peeling away of the cultural cataracts that cloud our view of perennial human problems, leads to bad science and blinds us to the baggage attached to our ideas of science itself."

February 10, 2000

I was not in class on February 10th but was instead with nine students and another teacher chaperoning an exchange trip to a middle school in Dinard, France. Unfortunately I can't seem to get away from language or linguistics even as I sit in Kennedy airport. As I was waiting with students for the flight to Paris I read an article in education week that greatly disturbed me. The author a researcher at Harvard had prepared an op-ed article on misconceptions about early language learning. Brad Marshall based his opinions on research that he and Catherine Snow conducted and published in the TESOL Quarterly. I read parts of the article out loud to the students as a set waiting for the plane. They were surprised to see that someone would be questioning the advantage younger students have over older students in learning second languages. They were stunned in fact to think that something they accepted as truth would be questioned. I would like to write a letter to the editor complaining about the article. It is certainly a political statement that Education Week is making by putting this type of article out for school administrators and school board members to read at the very moment entire states are considering implementing more extensive elementary programs.

While in France I spent some time discussing the Breton language and its status with my host family a teacher from the school and her husband who owns a shop. I also discussed this issue at length with the other teacher colleagues at the middle school. It seems from their commentary, only one of whom is of Breton ancestry, that Breton language and culture has a very low status in Brittany today. I took note that even the bus driver on our French field trip to the Normandy beaches made fun of one of the teachers who spoke him in Breton. Of course he made fun of him a once the teacher had left the bus.

On the other hand, there is an indication of ethnic and linguistic revival when one looks at the names of the students in the middle school. About 50 percent of the students I've met at College le Bocage have Breton first names. No Breton is taught in the middle school of course; this is upper Brittany and not further west or Southwest where one would find a more indigenous Breton culture. I purchased several books to share with the class and with my French students in Glastonbury. I found many of the discussions with my host family and other random French people that I encountered as I was traveling for a day by myself in Paris to be interesting. As usual there were many negative comments about the role of English. Once individuals found that I was an American who spoke French well and like speaking French I'm sure they assumed it was safe to make commentary to me on negative attitudes about Americans, of course the English, and the role of English. As in the past there was very little evidence of people choosing to speak English to me because they were excited about using it. When given the choice of speaking French or English they were excited about speaking French with an American.

Our host families and French students were generally impressed with the French language ability of our students. Very few of the host families could speak English well enough to have daily conversations with our students in English; therefore, most communication in the home went on in French and all of the information for the two weeks our students attended school was presented to them in French only. Certainly, context, motivation and positive attitude contributed to such an outstanding immersion experience for our French students. I only wish more American students were motivated to participate in these types of linguistic and cultural exchanges. As could be predicted there are three times as many French students interested in coming and staying with our families in Glastonbury as we have students interested in staying with families and attending school in France for two weeks. On the other hand we have many students who are interested in taking a week excursion to France with other Americans. Something is wrong with this picture!

While in France I read more of the Edwards book and reflected upon the lack of multilingualism in France. France's one of those countries that has made a commitment to having an official language, an official language policy and an extremely active academy to oversee the maintenance of official French.

February 17, 2000

Tonight I shared with the class the article about early language learning from Education Week. We didn't have time to discuss the article, but I hope to get back to that as a part of my short paper. I also brought a Breton French dictionary for children. I was impressed that while in Rennes I was able to find so many children's books written in Breton as well as several excellent dictionaries and histories of the Breton language

Tonight in class we discussed the languages of Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish and Breton. We discussed from Edwards chapter 3and 4 the process of language accommodation, diglossia and linguistic hierarchies with their varying levels of prestige. We discussed the murder and suicide of languages. My favorite quote from tonight's class is, "what kills a language is the lack of transmission of that language to the children." Certainly the Bretons are making an efforts to transmit their language as it has been reconstructed for this purpose to their children. Because an entire generation of Breton parents do not speak Breton, the language that's being transmitted to the children is not the same language of Breton that is spoken by the elders in western Brittany.

I suppose the Breton would be considered a boutique language as opposed to a mall language.

I enjoyed Melissa's presentation on Pidgins and Creoles. She gave examples of how one pidgin might sound and how it might have a rigid word order of subject, verb, and object.

In a discussion about prejudice and discrimination based on language and was reminded of a project I conducted for a course in sociolinguistics that I took in the late 1970s. I taped my grandmother who was 80 at the time and from West Virginia, a friend's husband who was African-American from New York State, a British friend, a friend from West Hartford and a friend from Iowa. I made up a questionnaire that was completely attitudinal and posed questions about the possible years of education each of these speakers had had their status in life at the present time and the amount of money they probably made annually. My teaching colleagues completed the questionnaire. Most responded correctly about mygrandmother's educactional background and income level but they were dead wrong about the African-American man who actually had the highest level of education and income of the entire group. They ranked second to my grandmother in their estimates of his educational background and annual income. The woman with a British accent of course was ranked first in their estimates of educational background and income. The individuals from West Hartford and Iowa were rated in the middle. This taught me a profound lesson about the attitudes we hold about language use, standard language vs. non-standard language use and pronunciation in English. My friend's husband's English was sometimes non-standard especially as he was talking on the tape about reflecting on his childhood. I'm sure that in business dealings and in his educational pursuits he was used a more standard form of English. I had asked all to just simply tell stories about their childhood and about one funny thing that had happened to them in adulthood. I told them that I would be analyzing the stories for a class project. Since they assumed that I would be the audience. . Not a single teacher asked me for information about the speakers. They made their judgments about these individuals based completely on the regional pronunciation and choice of language that the individuals used on the tape.

February 24, 2000

I was not here for the class on February 24 where the topic of language and identity was discussed. I did however read the chapters on national identity and its intersection with language policy and am familiar with Joshua Fishman's work on language and nationalism as well as language status. Since I had to be in Los Angeles for this week and not in the class, I was looking for examples of language and national identity in Los Angeles for the week that I was there. My father-in-law lives in Los Angeles and we spend quite a bit of time there. I have been following the California English only debates as well as debating this issue with family members at every family gathering. While I was in Los Angeles I was able to obtain copies of several articles from the L.A. times on language. Because Los Angeles is such a multilingual, multicultural city one would think that there's an open mindedness about the efficacy of speaking more than 1 language. Usually in my limited conversations with well-educated upwardly mobile members of our extended family I find a real animosity toward learning and using more than 1 language. Certainly intelligent well-educated individuals are not open-minded about bilingual education. Even liberal family members have taken a strong stand against bilingual education. They have supported the California English only law. They have also withdrawn their support psychologically and financially from the public schools. Private schools are growing by leaps and bounds and very few of those schools are offering foreign languages in the early grades. In an environment where it would seem logical to be creating Asian language immersion schools for predominantly English-speaking elementary school and high school students, no such efforts exist. Frequently, special models, either dual language immersion schools or bilingual classes, exist to serve the needs of students who are learning English is a foreign language.

During this trip I read some literature intended for parents who were looking for special opportunities for their children in private schools, summer camps and after school programs. After reading about dozens of special programs I found only one or two that made any mention of teaching languages to children at an early age. The languages that were being taught in these schools and after school programs were primarily French and German. It seems incredibly ironic that in Los Angeles with so many speakers of Asian languages, Spanish and Portuguese there would be no effort to be teaching these languages to primarily English-speaking children.

This lack of enthusiasm about other languages and other cultures is perhaps what causes a newspaper like a Los Angeles Times to run such an in depth series about language learning. The three articles that I found are also available on the L.A. times WebSite. The first article talks specifically about Los Angeles as a global model for the world's linguistic future. The subtitle suggests that English may be the dominant language of Los Angeles but it is co-existing with scores of other languages. The operative word here being co-exist. The seconds article talks about new views of the brain and how present research on the brain is revealing much more about language use. The third article in the series talks about the death of languages and how more than 3000 languages worldwide are in danger of disappearing but how "dogged supporters" are bringing some languages back via the Internet and other technological advances. I plan to share these articles with the class.

Certainly Fishman's work on language status applies to Los Angles and California in general. Spanish and other Asian languages have very low status due to the link between negative attitudes about immigrants and the status of languages people want to study.

March 2, 2000

Tonight's lesson dealt with literacy. I enjoyed the lesson about Japanese that Nicole taught. I found a discussion of the difference between pictographs and sound letter correspondence, alphabetical systems to be very informative also. I liked the hand out of the Kanji for the manner in which it explained the evolution of the picture to the symbol. Although I've never studied an Asian language, my experience in studying a small amount of Hebrew as an adult has underscored the difficulty for me in attempting to learn writing systems that do not have Roman alphabets. I recall my incredible frustration in Russia at not having any literacy skills at all. I can remember feeling totally panicked on the subway because I had no idea how to read the names of the subway stops and felt that I would certainly be there for the rest of my life until I ran into someone who could speak English and help me. I do imagine that individuals who operate between several types of writing systems do have a greater cognitive ability than those of us who operate within the only one. Although people debate the critical period hypothesis for language learning I have to believe that children who are exposed to multiple writing systems are more able to build upon that exposure later in life and to develop competencies in languages that do not have the same writing systems as their native languages to a higher degree than adults who attempt to learn the systems after their brains have matured!

March 9, 2000

Today gave my presentation on language education of the role of bilingual education in the United States. This is a topic that I feel particularly strong about for I feel that the history of language teaching in the US is inextricably tied to the views that Americans have of themselves is a nation of immigrants. I think it will be extremely difficult to ever muster the kind of support necessary to have the American population value language learning given our political history and the very foundation of the democracy. Because we are a nation of immigrants the need to sacrifice something substantial to become an American. This sacrifice seems to far outweigh the value of trying to build a multilingual or multicultural society. Mainly for economic reasons, there's pressure for individuals regardless of their original country or language to join the mainstream society. Regardless of whether English is ever declared the official language of United States or not there is incredible pressure for all people to be confident in English. In our country I don't believe that will see the right to Mother Tongue education ever being the norm. There may be periods of time in our history where there's more sympathy for language maintenance than others but basically the pressure on all to conform to the unspoken official language is enormous. Tied up in this political reality is the fate of foreign language instruction in the U.S. Ironically some of the most conservative citizens as well as the U.S. military see the learning of other languages as important academic, practical and strategic pursuits for some American citizens, but not for all. Certainly the rights of the individual to maintain his or her Mother tongue will not overshadow the rights of the collective whole. Some foreign language instruction for native speakers of English will always be accepted and will always be the purview of the U.S. government. If we were to begin to do a better job at instructing students at the kindergarten to grade 12 level it might kill the governments language training industry. Who knows it might also kill the need to teach so many college freshmen and sophomores the very basic course in language therefore eliminating the per pupil allotment college language departments receive in the annual budgets for having large numbers of students in low-level courses. Sound cynical? Perhaps this is the real basis for the Marshall and Snow article that appeared in Education Week.

I found the discussion about written language to be very interesting also during this class. My favorite quote for tonight was, "when one produces a transcript of spoken language a whole collection of things gets lost in the translation. Politicians work to make sure what they say corresponds to what can be written." Written language provides the consensus over space and the memory overtime for what is to be remembered about culture.

I enjoyed reading the chapter in Romaine. True that it is difficult if not impossible to have the democracy if you don't have a literate population. Literacy is essential for the creation of a nation state. At the same time it's interesting that in our society we pay tremendous lip service to building literacy for all citizens yet we leave many children and adults in the kind of literacy limbo. I especially liked the quote this evening that; "standardized spelling and the 17th century came about as a result of too many people learning to write." Democracy especially the system employed in the U.S. resulting from changes in France and England probably came about as a result of too many people being able to read.

March 23, 2000

Tonight's discussion was about language and colonialism. We talked about France after the French Revolution and the need to insure the use of a single language. As France colonized other areas of the world they carried this philosophy with them, as did the English, of course, as well as the Portuguese and the Dutch. Because colonial powers needed to set up an infrastructure that related to the home country they would work to wipe out indigenous languages and set up the use of a single language. Language is power and they took the power in any way they could by creating massive types of communication in the language of colonization.

I was surprised to learn that Esperanto was heavily influenced by Yiddish. It makes tremendous sense that people who are oppressed find unique ways to communicate and maintain their languages in spite of a colonial or dominant power attempting to wipe out their languages of communication.

In the United States, the attempted elimination of indigenous Native American languages in the 18 40s was carried out by the U.S. cavalry. Young boys were taken from their families and placed in boarding schools where it was forbidden for them to speak their native languages. This dark period in our history was a very successful way of beginning the attemped total destruction of Native American languages and cultures.

It's interesting, however, that after the breakup of the Soviet Union where so many nationalist groups had been suppressed for such a longtime by the Russians attempt to Russify the various regions they had conquered, that overnight, nationalist groups stopped speaking Russian. In the republics, nationalists began broadcasting on radio and television as well as printing newspapers in the languages of the local areas. In this sense the Russian toleration of the existence of these Mother Tongue languages help to undo the great Russian republic. On the other hand their language policy practice of providing Russian and Mother tongue education helped to provide the infrastructure for the republics to function on their own. Perhaps they underestimated the power of Mother tongue language and culture over allegiance to the Russian government.

March 30, 2000

I very much enjoyed a presentation by Professor Ellis of the University of Hartford. I was surprised to find out that there were over 30 languages spoken in Israel. Given the complexity of the region, and the various groups who still occupy the region it is actually quite amazing that the country was formed and a single language emerged as a result of language planning. This must truly be one of the most successful attempts of language planning undertaken in the world in the last several hundred years if not ever. Although there might have been a lot of Hebrew spoken for religious purposes, prior to the founding of the nation state certainly the attempt to have all who emigrated to Israel speak modern Hebrew was a massive undertaking.

Israel is certainly a different example of how multilingualism can be fostered and maintained for many purposes without undermining Hebrew. I found it very interesting that Professor Ellis talked of how the Israeli Arabs complain that when Hebrew is taught to them that the pedagogy is infused with religious overtones. This makes sense given the reason for teaching Hebrew.

In West Hartford when the school district attempted to offer Hebrew and Portuguese, Jewish parents and Portuguese parents were not interested in their children taking these languages in the public school environment. They preferred to have their children learn languages in a more religious environment and the languages had to be dropped from the public school curriculum for lack of enrollment.

I also found Ellis's discussion of his work with Israeli and Arab youth to be a fascinating description not only of human interaction but of the role the language choice plays in negotiations and highly charged exchanges of emotion

I enjoyed Adam's presentation about language planning and policy. His description of the language nests was very compelling as a way of having small languages preserved by the elders. He talked about the decision to use Spanish in the census as an example of status planning.

April 6, 2000

Tonight's interview with Elisa Kehlet was really delightful. I liked the venue of the telephone conference very much. It was a little bit like watching a play rather than seeing a movie. Although I had to imagine her setting, the way she looked and the backdrop for her employment it was fascinating to see how someone can convey a tremendous amount of information just through the auditory mode. I really wanted to listen to her talk more about the metacognitve process that goes on in translation. As with others who are highly proficient in many languages it's sometimes hard for them to articulate the strategies that they use cognitively while they are speaking or thinking in those languages.

I thought it was depressing the Elisa described herself as a civil servant of the European Parliament. With such an important position and such incredible intellectual capacity the term "civil servant" sounded so bureaucratic and mundane. Certainly her work at the European Parliament should be considered one of the highest prestige jobs. Perhaps it is.

I found her description of her actual work day and the normal fatigue that occurs within 30 or 35 minutes to be very interesting. I founded in informative that interpreters are given parliamentary documents but not much preparation time. My favorite quotes for tonight were, "we normally hate the fish committee" hand "I usually have to go to the loo when an Irishman comes up." I also thought it was interesting that cell phones normally interfere with the microphones and everyone has to switch off the cell phones while interpreting is going on.

How wonderful to be able to interpret for the Dali Lama, yet what an incredible responsibility.

Another profound thought from Elisa about multilingualism or bilingualism at home, "you can never give your child a language you cannot speak well your self."

I would really like to read the book that Lise talked about in her presentation, It's a Small Place by Jamaica Kincaid. I also appreciated all of the insights that Norma gave to the discussion about interpretation.

April 14, 2000

As always I enjoyed listening to Tim Reagan.. His discussions of linguistic imperialism and the politics of English only in the United States were thought provoking. I had never considered the fact that if English were to become the official language of United States that might imply some sort of guarantee that English would have to be taught effectively. Now that is a cynical concept. I also liked the view that he presented of English and the Muslim world, that being that English is considered a Christian language. I think HL Mencken is attributed the quote, "If English is good enough for Jesus Christ then it's good enough for me."

Tim first presented the concept of language diversity being considered a type of biodiversity. It's interesting to think about maintaining languages for ecological purposes.

Since I know little about the language policy in of South Africa I found the overview very informative. The PowerPoint presentation added interesting visuals such as the language and population maps. I also found it fascinating to think about sign language and the history of sign and vs. spoken languages. Tim's discussion brought to mind the book review that I read. I am more determined now than before to find that new book by Ree and read it.

I think it would definitely be possible to speak the Library of Congress system. There's a shared set of understandings and a system for describing those understandings. It's a system that is highly representational but also infinite in its ability to create new terminology. People already understand the context of the system.

April 20, 2000

I read from the notes both other class members that the telephone interview with Mark Fettes was very interesting also. I read the draft of his proposal on linguistic biodiversity. Class members told me that his presentation centered on the indigenous language groups in Canada more than on the issues of French today. I'm sorry I didn't hear him speak, but I found his first draft to be thought provoking. From a political and ecological standpoint perhaps the time is right to consider the maintenance of indigenous languages as a biodiversity issue. I can see that in Canada and in the United States there would be much sympathy toward the maintenance, development and sharing of indigenous languages.

I don't believe that at this point in our history Spanish could be preserved as an indigenous language. The animosity that exists toward migrants and immigrants and the perceived failure of bilingual education would make this in unpopular approach. The dual language approach seems to be working in locations the native speaking English population values the use Spanish. This approach is similar to the language immersion approach in Canada. I would liked to hear Mark Fettes discuss his views on the language immersion approaches in Canada.

April 27, 2000

Tonight we met with Anna, a native speaker of English who is fluent in Esperanto and lives in Italy. I found it remarkable that Anna and her husband speak only Esperanto to one another and each speak the different language to their children. She and her family should be the subject of a longitudinal study. Not only wouldn't be wonderful to study the cognitive abilities, but also the ability to be so consistent in their language use. It will fascinating to have a conversation with a members of the family together and the independent of one another where one might discuss issues of language choice, code switching, comprehension and affect related to language choice without the other members of the family being present. It could be a kind of linguistic "dating game show." I enjoyed hearing about her view of the one person/1 language vs. the situational approach to family language use. Of course this is a microcosm of national language planning. This family for her personal reasons has chosen to speak what language and to add other languages for political, cultural, practical and personal reasons.

I would have like to have had much more time to hear from Anna a better views of the Esperanto movement. I found it fascinating that there are summer camps and world Congress meetings. I also would have enjoyed listening to her descriptions of the approaches to teaching foreign languages in Italy.

The learning and teaching of Esperanto is fascinating. I hope that Humphrey teaches a course of Esperanto at some point at the University.

I have completely enjoyed this course and feel that it updated and added to my knowledge base in linguistics. The readings, class discussions, and approaches to hearing from authentic sources were excellent. I feel that teachers of all subjects and school administrators should be expected to take this course as a foundation for working with students in United States. Of course if the students in the class did not have the same background or interest in languages as did our particular class, a more basic approach covering fundamental concepts in linguistics prior to more in-depth discussion of language policy and language planning might need to take place.

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