Phi 383W, §19939 / WS 383W,  §19952

                                     Spring 2000, Dr. Moen, M 7-10 pm, A421


Office:  A204-I,  phone x4528                     Office Hrs:   M  3-4:00; 6-7:00 pm
Home phone:     243-8261                                              W  3-5:00
E-mail:  moen@hartford.edu                                      R  9-11:00 & by appointment

I. Description of Course Content:

 In this course we work to develop philosophical perspectives on feminism and
feminist perspectives on philosophy. Philosophy is an on-going process of
criticism and construction. We work with both modes of the process--the critical
and the constructive (or reconstructive). On the one hand we examine the
possibility that the branches of philosophy--ethics, aesthetics, philosophy of science,
theory of knowledge ("epistemology"), theories of reality ("metaphysics"), and
others-- may have been inadvertently impoverished by being grounded largely in
male experience. On the other hand we study a rich variety of constructive moves
toward a philosophy more engaged with the experience of all human beings. The
Course Schedule below provides a more detailed list of topics to be addressed.

I. Texts:

  A. Required texts for purchase:
1. Meyers, Diana T., ed. Feminist Social Thought.  New York: Routledge, 1997.
    [hereafter "M"]
2. Garry, Ann & Pearsall, Marilyn, eds. Women, Knowledge & Reality. 2nd ed.
    New York: Routledge, 1998.  [hereafter "GP"]
 B. Other readings:
Several readings will be on reserve in  Mortenson Library. These will be mentioned
from time to time, usually as recommended readings, although I reserve the right
occasionally to assign some of these as required reading if students in the class express
adequate interest in the topics of these works. (In that case, for example, we might
decide to substitute a library reading for one of the articles in our text.) These reserve
materials may also be good starting points for your research papers.
 C. On-line resources:  a list of recommended sites will be provided.

III. Goals and Objectives:

The general goals of the Philosophy Department at the University of Hartford are
to foster studentsā growth in four areas: (A) basic knowledge of the history and
practice of philosophy; (B) analytical, critical, and interpretive reading of primary texts;
(C) the design and conduct of inquiry; and (D) clarity of expression and communication,
especially in speech and writing.

In keeping with those general departmental goals, students who successfully complete
this course will be able to meet the following objectives:

A.   - to identify  main themes of feminist philosophy (especially during the last half
century), some of its major contributors, and their specific contributions
- to identify historical and cultural conditions in and through which those themes
emerged, and those contributors attained voice and recognition
- to compare and contrast distinct agendas and methodologies put forward by
different feminist philosophers

B.   - to read and understand primary source material in philosophy by practicing
both modes of analytical reading: the empathic and the critical
- to extract significant concepts and arguments from primary texts
- to evaluate these arguments with regard to their strengths and limitations; their
implications for further inquiry; and their potential impact on Īreal-worldā issues

C.   - to conduct inquiry- for a short independent project. This means
-  to sense the presence of a conceptual and/or practical problem
-  to specify the problem
-  to gather relevant information and interpret it conceptually
      - to assess the results of the inquiry project and to suggest further directions
    of inquiry

D.  - to express and communicate the results of inquiry, in prose that is clear,
logically sound, and effectively structured

IV. Assignments and Grading:

-Weekly writing assignments:  normally these will be
     responses to assigned reading, in what I call "prep-sheet"
     format (explained below).      30 %

 - Participation:  attendance, preparedness, contributions to
    class discussion and to small-group process, occasional
   on-line assignments, and maintenance of a "portfolio"
   consisting of your collected written work for the course.   10%

- Independent research paper (15-20 pages)    20%

- Two take-home exams (4-6 pages each) @ 15%   30%

- Hands-on service project report     10%

V. Rules and Expectations:

1. Attend every class. Have assignments for the day completed.
Be respectful of your co-learners (classmates and professor).
Ordinarily late assignments will suffer a grade penalty and will not
be accepted at all after one week.  Exceptions will be made in
special circumstances such as serious illness, travel with athletic
teams, family emergencies, etc.

2. You are encouraged to study together. You may brainstorm
together in preparation for papers. But, in the end, your written
work must be your own. Plagiarism consists of presenting
someone elseās work as though it were your own. The penalty
is failure for the entire course. While working on your papers,
be sure to use proper documentation. Ask for advice if you are

VI. Tentative Schedule:  We will try to follow this schedule as
closely as possible, but there will probably be changes. In case
you miss a class, it is your responsibility to inform yourself about
any changes in schedule  so that you can come properly
prepared to the next class.
Repeat:  be on the alert for announced changes!
Date Topic +  Readings + Prep-Sheets Due Resarch Process Other Work
Week 1 
Week 2 
Philosophy and Gender 

Frye, Marilyn  
   "The Possibility of Feminist Theory"  
(GP 3, 34-47).  
*Prep-sheet due  from Group 2. 

hooks, bell 
    "Choosing the Margin as a 
            Space of Radical  Openness"  
        (GP 4 , 48-56).  
        *Prep-Sheet due from Group 4. 

       Construction of Gender 
Chodorow, Nancy 
     "Gender, Relation and Differnce in Psychoanalytic Perspective" 
       (M 1, 7-20).  
       *Prep-sheet due from Group 3. 

Young, Iris 
   "Is Male Gender Identity the Cause of  Male  
     (M  2, 21-37).  
     *Prep-sheet due from Group 1.  

Week 3 
Construction of Gender (cont.) 

                        Ferguson, Ann  
                           "On Conceiving Motherhood and Sexuality: 
                            A Feminist Materialist Approach"  
                           (M 3, 38-63).  
                        *Prep-Sheet due from Group 4. 

                        MacKinnon, Catherine 
                            "Feminism, Marxism, Method and the State: 
                                An Agenda for Theory"  
                        (M 4, 64-91).  
                        *Prep-sheet due from Group 2. 

                        Bartky, Sandra 
                            "Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization  
                                  of Patriarchal Power "  
                            (M  5 ,  92-111).  
                            *Prep-sheet due from Group 3. 

                        Butler, Judith 
                            excerpt from "Gender Trouble"  
                            (M 6, 112-130). 
                            *Prep-sheet due from group 1. 

Research Topic Due  
Week 4 
Compound Diversity 

                Fraser, Nancy & Nicholson, Linda J.,  
                 "Social Criticism without Philosophy:  
                            An Encounter between Feminism and  
                    (M 7, 131-146).  
                    *Prep-sheet due from group 1. 

                Lugones, Maria  
                    "Playfulness, 'World'-travelling and Loving  
                    (M 8, 147-159).  
                    *Prep-Sheet Due from Group 4. 

                Calhoun, Cheshire,  
                    "Separating Lesbian Theory from Feminist Theory"  
                    (M 11, 199-218).  
                    *Prep-sheet due from Group 3.  

                King, Deborah  
                    "Multiple Jeopardy, Multiple Consciousness: 
                           The Context of a Black Female Ideology"  
                    (M 12, 219-244). 
                   *Prep-sheet due from Group 2. 

Initial Bibliography Due Exam #1 Distributed
Week 5 
  Metaphysics, Self, and Agency  
                    Kristeva, Julia,  
                            "Women's Time"  
                            (GP 5, 61-83).  
                         *Prep-Sheet due from Group 4. 

                    Ferguson, Ann,  
                        "Can I Choose Who I Am?  And How Would That 
                               Empower Me?  Gender, Race, Identities, and the 
                            (GP 7, 108-116).  
                             *Prep-sheet due from Group 2. 

                    Haslanger, Sally,  
                        "Objective Reality,  Male Reality, and  Social 
                        (GP 6,  84-107). 
                       *Prep-sheet due from Group 1. 

                    Torres, Lourdes,  
                        "The Construction of the Self in U.S. Latina  
                        (GP 8, 127-144).  
                        *Prep-sheet due from Group 3. 

  Exam 1 Due
Week 6 
 Metaphysics and Epistemology 

                    Crenshaw, Kimberle Williams  
                        "Beyond Racism and Misogyny:  
                            Black Feminism and 2 Live Crew "  
                        (M  13,  245-263).  
                        *Prep- sheet due from Group 3. 

                Lloyd, Genevieve 
                    "The Man of Reason"  
                    (GP 9,  149-165).  
                    *Prep-sheet due from Group 2. 

                Lloyd, Genevieve 
                     "Maleness, Metaphor and the Crisis of Reason"  
                        (M 15,  286-301).  
                        *Prep-sheet due from group 1. 

                Collins, Patricia,  
                    "The Social Construction of  Black  Feminist Thought "  
                    (GP 12,  222- 248).  
                    *Prep-Sheet Due from Group 4.

Annotated Bibliography Due  
Week 7 
Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 

                    "Love and Knowledge: Emotion in Feminist  
                    (GP 10, 166-190).  
                *Prep-sheet due from  Group 2. 

                Nelson, Lynn 
                    "Who knows?  What Can They Know?  
                    And When?"  
                    (GP 15,  286-297).  
                     *Prep-sheet due from Group 3. 

                Shiva, Vandana  
                    "Science, Nature, and Gender"  
                       (GP 14,  264- 285).  
                    *Prep-Sheet Due from Group 4. 

                Harding, Sandra 
                     "Feminism, Science, and the Anti-Enlightenment 
                            (GP 16,  298-320).  
                            *Prep-shee due from Group 1.

Outline or Prospectus Due  
Week 8 
Agency and Language 

                Williams, Patricia  
                    "Mirrors and Windows: An Essay on Empty  
                            Signs, Pregnant Meanings, and Women's Power" 
                            (M 18,  331- 340).  
                             *Prep-sheet due from Group 2. 

                Mann, Patricia 
                    "Glancing at Pornography: Recognizing Men"  
                    (M 23,  415-439).  
                    *Prep-Sheet Due from Group 4. 

                Nye, Andrea 
                     "The Voice of the Serpent: French Feminism and  
                            Philosophy of Language" 
                            (GP 17,  323-338). 
                          *Prep-shee due from group 1. 

                Tanesini, Alessandra,  
                    "Whose Language?"  
                    (GP 19,  353-366). 
                    *Prep-sheet due from Group 3

First Five pages of research Paper Due Exam 2 distributed
Week 9 
Political Thought and Agency 

              Hartsock, Nancy  
                 "The Feminist Standpoint: Developing the Ground 
                            for a Specifically Feminist Historical Materialism"  
                            (M 25, 461-483).  
                            *Prep-Sheet due from Group 4. 

                hooks, bell  
                    "Sisterhood; Political Solidarity Between Women"  
                        (M 26, 484-500).  
                       *Prep-sheet due from Group 3. 

                Haraway, Donna 
                    "A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science,  Technology, 
                        and Socialist Feminism in the 1980's"  
                        (M 27,  501-531).     *Prep-sheet due from group 1. 

                Mouffe, Chantal 
                    "Feminism, Citizenship, and Radical Democratic  
                        Policies "  
                        (M 28,  532-546).  
                        *Prep-sheet due from Group 2.

  Exam 2 Due
Week 10 
 Feminist Ethics 

                Gilligan, Carol  
                   "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions 
                        of  Self and Morality" 
                    (M 29,  547-582).  
                     *Prep-Sheet due from Group 4. 

                Held, Virginia 
                    "Feminism and Moral Theory"  
                    (M 32, 630-645). 
                    *Prep-sheet due from Group 3. 

                Card, Claudia 
                    "Gender and Moral Luck"  
                      (M 33, 646-663).  
                    *Prep-sheet due from group 1. 

                Friedman, Marilyn 
                     "Beyond Caring: The De-Moralization of  
                        (M 34, 664-679).  
                        *Prep-sheet due from Group 2.

First 10 pages Due  
Women and the Law 
                Williams, Wendy  
                    "The Equality Crisis: Some Reflections on  
                            Culture, Courts and Feminism"  
                         (M 36,  695-713). 
                        *Prep-Sheet Due from Group 4. 

                   Littleton, Christine 
                        "Reconstructing Sexual Equality" 
                        (M 37, 714-734).  
                        *Prep-sheet due from Group 3 

                    Benhabib, Seyla 
                        "The Generalized and the Concrete Other: 
                            The  Kohlberg-Gilligan Controversy and  
                            Moral Theory"  
                        (M 38,  735-756).  
                        *Prep-sheet due from group 1. 

                    Scott, Joan 
                        "Deconstructing Equality-Versus-Difference: Or,  
                                the Uses of Poststructuralist Theory for  
                        (M 39,  757-770).  
                    *Prep-sheet due from Group 2.

First 15 Pages Due  
Week 12 
Religion, Women and Imagery 

                Hein, Hilde                                                                                    Complete First Draft Due 
                    "Liberating Philosophy: An End to the Dichotomy  
                        of Spirit and Matter"  
                    (GP 23,  437-453).  
                    *Prep-Sheet due from Group 4. 

                Kristeva, Julia 
                    "Stabat Mater"  
                    (M 16,  302-319).  
                    *Prep-sheet due from group 1. 

                Irigaray, Luce 
                     "Divine Women"  
                        (GP 25,  471-484). 
                        *Prep-sheet due from group 2. 

                Bordo, Susan 
                        "Anorexia Nervosa: Psychopathology as the  
                            Crystallization of  Culture"  
                        (GP 21,  388-418).  
                         *Prep- sheet due from Group 3.

Complete First Draft Due  
Week 13 To Be Determined   Service Project Report Due
Week 14 
To Be Determined    

VII. Other Relevant Information Regarding Assignments:

A. What is a prep-sheet ?

A prep-sheet is somewhat like a journal entry, but with a specific content and format. It enables you to come to class well prepared for listening and discussion. Prep-sheets greatly facilitate productive
small-group work.

Format for a prep-sheet:  a prep-sheet has four parts:  Analysis, Evaluation, Further Inquiry, and Personal Response.

Here they are in more detail:

a. Summarize the authorās argument. State what she or he says,using your own words but conveying the author's own meaning. Before you begin, think carefully about what the author's main argument is. Remember what philosophers mean by the term "argument":

An argument is discourse in which reasons are given in support
    of a conclusion. To extract the argument from a text, then,
    you must ask yourself:
- What question is the author asking, or what problem is s/he addressing?
- What answer does s/he finally come to?
- What are the main thought-steps s/he goes through to get from the problem
        to the solution?
When you can answer these questions, you are ready to summarize the
    author's  argument

b. Situate what is said, in terms of its historical and cultural context

a. Determine the strength of the argument. Consider both its internal logic and how well it stands up against your knowledge from other sources and your own reasoning.
b. Determine the significance of the argument. Ask yourself "What difference does it make?"  Think both about the difference it would have made in its original context, and about what difference it might make today. To what contemporary issues and problems would the author's ideas be relevant? How might we need to "reconstruct" any of those ideas to make them useful to us today?

a. What questions for further inquiry does your evaluation of this argument suggest?  What does the author need to explain or investigate next, to clarify or refine her/his thinking?
b. What uses might we make of the authorās ideas and arguments in relation to problems we face today?  You may consider both social problems and conceptual problems.  How would you reconstruct the ideas to make them more servicable in today's world?


Please add any thoughts and feelings you have about the material that did not seem to fit in the previous sections of this prep-sheet. If you have not already indicated what you found most interesting in this material, do that here.
Here is one way to remember what should be on a prep-sheet: 
   I. Analysis:      summarize and situate 
  II. Evaluation:  assess strength and significance 
 III. Inquiry:       suggest uses and refinements 
 IV. Personal Response:  (self)

- The most important part of your prep-sheet is the Analysis--especially when you are first learning to do a prep-sheet. Concentrate on that. As the course goes on, the Analysis will become much easier.  I will then ask you to concentrate a larger portion of your effort on other parts of the prep-sheet.

- A prep-sheet will probably require 1-3 pages, if it is planned well. If you find it helpful to write more than that, however, you are free to do so. Prep-sheets should be typed, preferably on a word-processor.
- I will provide you with a sample prep-sheet or two, to help you understand what you need to do.

B. Your Independent Research Paper:
  You will receive further instructions on the research paper as the class proceeds. This assignment should be especially fun for you! --it is here that you will investigate a topic of particular interest to you. The possibilities are vast. You might pick a specific topic or problem. You might focus on a particular author's work. It is important to begin this process early, and to work consistently at it. The schedule above gives you a whole set of due dates by means of which I expect you to pace your work. PLEASE OBSERVE THESE DUE DATES!

C. Take-Home Exams (Essays):
  - These are intended to test your understanding of the assigned readings. I will give you three questions. You will pick one of these and write an essay (4-6 pages) answering it. These are interpretive-analytical essays. They require careful reading of texts, and they require thinking. They do not require research
beyond assigned texts.

 - Rewrites will normally be permitted, but only providing the paper was originally  submitted on time.  Ordinarily there is no re-write option on late papers.

D. Hands-on Service Project and Report:
You will receive further instruction on this project early in the semester. We will locate a variety of service
opportunities involving issues of concern to women and/or organizations dedicated to such issues. Some of these will involve travel off campus, but others will not. Each of you will arrange to do a small number of hours of service work and will write and present a brief report. Please note: this is not a huge project, and will not take a great deal of your time. It is meant to help you make contact with service
opportunities that exist, and to provide you with some valuable and satisfying experiences related to the problems our authors are addressing.

E.  Electronic Media and "Study Help":
- When feasible, I will post "study help" on my homepage rather than using hardcopy handouts. I will also post any changes in assignments, or other relevant announcements, so that if you forget something that was announced in class, you can consult the web page to refresh your memory. Another type of help that you fill find on my web page is a set of links to sites of special value to students of feminist philosophy.
- We will be organizing some mode of electronic discussion of course-related issues. You will not be
required  to participate in this exchange. However, intelligent participation may make you eligible for extra credit.

Do communicate with me! Make me aware of any course-related problems you are having. Give me
your suggestions for improving the course. Tell me your likes and dislikes. I will exercise my  judgment,
but the more students I receive feedback from, the better my judgment can serve the class as a whole.

 Utilize my Office Hours (or make an appointment) whenever you want extra help with the course.
If it is more convenient, consult me by e-mail.

  Communicate with one another also! Study groups are usually very helpful in relation to philosophy.
Think seriously about starting a group, or finding a study partner. Help one another out.