Human Anatomy and Physiology

-BIO 112 - Dr. Harney

-Study Guide - Exam II


1) Name and explain 5 functions of the skeletal system.

2) Name and give an example of the 6 types of bones.

3) What is osseous tissue ? What is compact and spongy bone and how are they different and what are their functions ? Where in a long bone do you find them ?

4) What are the scientific terms for the shaft and head of long bones ?

5) Define the 2 kinds of bone marrow, where they are located, what their function is and how they are different.

6) Name the components of the bone matrix. What is the roll of collagen in the integrity of bone ?

7) Define all the cells in bone. Where they are found, what they do and where do they come from ?

8) What are osteons, cannaliculi, lamellae, lacunae and trabeculae ? Where are they found and what is their function ?

9) Define the types of fractures of bone (see page 190, FOCUS)

10) Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. How is ossification different from calcification?

11) What is the epiphyseal plate and what induces closure of these plates ?

12) Define the hormones involved in regulation of bone growth. What is their source and site of action (Table 6-1) ?

13) Compare osteopenia and osteoporosis.

14) What are the periosteum and the endosteum and what is their function ?

15) What do we store in bone and why is it critical to regulate their levels in the blood ?

16) What is the axial skeleton and what structures are included in it ?

17) Be able to identify the bones and sutures of the cranium as well as the mandible, maxillary and nasal bones.

18) Know the following terms: foramen, fissure, sulcus and trochanter (see handout).

19) Know the number and distribution of the vertebrae. What are false and floating ribs ?

20) What are the primary and secondary curves of the spinal column and when do the secondary show up and why ?

21) Identify the bones of the appendicular skeleton. Include the upper and lower extremities.

22) What bones of the legs and arms are medial versus lateral and which are larger and smaller (relatively) ?

23) What are the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of the foot and why are they important ?

24) Compare the male and female pelvic structures, what bones make up the pelvic girdle and what are their characteristics ?

25) What is an articulation ? What are their structural versus functional classifications ? (See handout and know the terms)

26) Define and identify the structures of a synovial joint. How do synovial joints differ and give examples of each type ?

27) Define eversion, inversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, lateral flexion, retraction, protraction, elevation, depression, abduction, adduction, rotation and circumduction.

28) Know the articulating bones of the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints. What are the characteristics of these joints and how are they injured and what makes them susceptible to injury ?

29) What are ligaments, tendons, bursae, menisci ? What are the types of cartilage and where do we find them ?

30) Compare a slipped and herniated disc. What structures of the intervertebral discs are involved ?

31) Review the organization of skeletal muscle (see Figs 10.1,10.2)

32) What surrounds the muscle fiber ? What is the muscle fiber made up of and what surrounds these structures ?

33) What are the roles of the T-tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum ?

34) Be able to identify and define the I-band, A-band and Z-line. What is the structure from Z-line to Z-line ?

35) What are the components of the thin and thick filaments and how do they interact in a contraction ?

36) Be able to describe the events associate with skeletal muscle innervation at the NMJ (Fig 10.7).

37) Describe the molecular events of the contraction process. What ions are required and what do they do ?

38) Understand the principles behind the effect of sarcomere length on muscle tension.

39) What are the 3 phase of the muscle contraction process, how long are they what occurs at the molecular level during each?

40) What is wave summation, incomplete and complete tetanus ?

41) What causes fatique in a muscle ?

42) What is a motor unit ? What two criteria are responsible for the gradation of whole muscle tension ?

43) Compare and contrast isotonic and isometric contractions.

44) Review muscle metabolism (Fig 10.16) and compare and contrast the sources of energy in resting muscle, moderate activity and peak activity. What are the disadvantages associated with peak activity ?

45) How do temperature and pH affect muscle metabolism ? Be very specific in your understanding of this concept.